Dindin Hidayatul Mursyidin, Muhammad Irfan Makruf, Badruzsaufari and Aidi Noor
Durian of Indonesia, specifically Durio zibethinus, is a potential agricultural commodity for domestic and international markets. However, its quality is still less competitive or significantly lower to fulfill the export market, compared to a similar one from other countries. This study aimed to determine and analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of the exotic durian (Durio spp.) germplasm originally from Kalimantan, Indonesia, using the rbcL marker.
Based on this marker, the durian germplasm has a low genetic diversity (π%=0.24). It may strongly correspond with the variability sites or mutation present in the region. In this case, the rbcL region of the durian germplasm has generated 23 variable sites with a transition/transversion (Ti/Tv) bias value of 1.00. However, following the phylogenetic and principal component analyses, this germplasm is separated into four main clades and six groups, respectively. In this case, D. zibethinus was very closely related to D. exleyanus. Meanwhile, D. lowianus and D. excelsus were the farthest. In further analysis, 29 durians were very closely related, and the farthest was shown by Durian Burung (D. acutifolius) and Kalih Haliyang (D. kutejensis) as well as Pampaken Burung Kecil (D. kutejensis) and Durian Burung (D. acutifolius) with a divergence coefficient of 0.011. The Pearson correlation analysis confirms that 20 pairs of individual durians have a strong relation, shown by, e.g., Maharawin Hamak and Durian Burung as well as Mantuala Batu Hayam and Durian Burung Besar.
While the durian has a low genetic diversity, the phylogenetic analyses revealed that this germplasm originally from Kalimantan, Indonesia, shows unique relationships. These findings may provide a beneficial task in supporting the durian genetic conservation and breeding practices in the future, locally and globally.