Canopy architecture is one of the most critical components influencing photoassimilation, yield and quality of fruit crops; thus, it is logical to optimize suitable canopy form with high light interception efficiency. In this study, the effectiveness of three forms of canopy architecture viz., open centre, Y trellis and espalier were assessed, under high density planting system of mango (833 plants ha−1). Y trellis facilitated better availability of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) in upper (793 µmol m−2 s−1) and lower canopy layers (487 µmol m−2 s−1) by exhibiting moderate interception of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Y-trellis also manifested relatively higher photosynthetic activity (6.07 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1 and 5.24 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), stomatal conductance (0.194 µmol H2O m−2 s−1 and 0.172 µmol H2O m−2 s−1), carbohydrate and protein content in upper and lower canopy layers. On the other hand, espalier system demonstrated high rate of PAR interception and low photosynthetic activity. Mango canopy with Y-trellis and open centre forms provided better results in terms of flowering intensity and fruit yield. Fruits from Y-trellis exhibited relatively better colour attributes, sucrose and β-carotene content. Alternatively, soluble solid contents, citric acid, carbohydrate and protein content were unaffected with the training systems. It was evident from PCA biplots that Y-trellis had close proximity with light intensity, photosynthetic characteristics, flowering intensity, yield, and fruit quality attributes. Moreover, path coefficient analysis indicated that PPFD, iPAR and photosynthetic rate (Pn) were the most important predictors for determining flowering in mango. The findings of the present study demonstrate that optimized canopy architecture is instrumental for effective utilization of radiation energy for higher flowering intensity, yield and fruit quality in mango. Economic assessment of training system indicated that Y-trellis was more feasible system when cultivation was aimed to maximise the profit with no restriction on investment. However under capital constraint situation open centre system was more profitable.