Tropical fruits and vegetables are predominantly cultivated in warm climate zones, resulting in cultivar diversity in terms of structure, features, and physiology. These constitute a variety of bioactive ingredients such as vitamins, minerals, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, fatty acids, fiber, and their distinctive appearances attract customers across the world. The global production of fruit and vegetables has been attained a tremendous increase for the last few decades. However, huge losses at pre- and postharvest levels are major constraints in their judicious use. Traditional breeding strategies were used to minimize these losses, but their functionality is limited due to their time and labor intensiveness. Recent biotechnological, computational, and multiomics approaches not only address the losses concern but also aid in boosting crop productivity and nutritional values. This article emphasizes molecular tools that have been used to reduce losses of tropical fruits and vegetables at pre- and postharvest levels.